Rooms and accomodation in Tinos island, Cyclades, Greece

TINOS 20-4-06

The Artichoke in Tinos SPEECH OF VILLA Manthou
Agricultural Cooperatives

Good afternoon
When the mayor called me and told me to prepare a few words about the current artichoke festival I
Thought  « in what trouble the Mayor put me», because for 16 years I was dealing with milk and cheese. But looking at my books, in some articles from the archive and my course on the Internet, the more bitted my interest in this valuable plant. Because artichoke is really very valuable as a healthy food for humans, but as a dynamic and growing in areas like ours that gives a satisfactory income, is not.Ttherefore, the artichoke is mainly cultivated on the dill heads consumed fresh or cooked and their leaves are an excellent feed for livestock particularly in dairy production. In Italy, the leaves produce liqueur with the name «Cyan» and several pharmaceutical products include cosmetic creams based on artichoke. Apart from, this excellent vegetable is also a valuable medicine. The components of artichoke are cholagoga and diuretics. Also have a therapeutic function to remove cholesterol from the blood! The artichoke is against atherosclerosis and liver failure. It is also the stimulation during the
Intermittent fever during the one fourth fervor against the dropsy, in liver diseases and
Anti-rheumatism. Furthermore, has properties in kidney stone against jaundice and is cordial and detergent blood. In commerce, across drugs prepared by the concentrated components of artichoke in the form of tablets and liquids, in drops, even in ampoules for intravenous or intramuscular injections. In these forms, it is certainly necessary medical advice. The artichoke contains vitamins A, B, C, calcium and phosphorus. Green artichoke leaves, with very little water, reaches the boiling point (but not boil) and then droughted will help to stimulate hair (with massage). Recently, study leading university in Germany, showed beneficial effects of artichoke, to reduce cholesterol and improve liver functions. These properties of artichoke caused by a substance involved and invited kynarini, which in
Previous studies have proven beneficial in filtration of fatty liver.
The artichoke appears to originate in the countries and mainly in near the meditteranean from eastern
Mediterranean, southern Europe and North Africa with a focus on today's Algeria. The Romans
Cultivate the thought and the fabulous food and finally became the most valuable from all the vegetables. The rich were eating artichokes throughout the year, fresh and preserved in vinegar and wine with cumin. After the Roman Empire the artichoke disappeared and appeared again the years of regeneration. The Spanish and French conquerors were transferring them to the American continent. Today it has spread to all continents. In Greece, two primitive species that are the wild artichoke and still collected and consumed as vegetables
Globally the artichoke grew in 1,300,000 acres with total production of 1,300,000 tons. Of the total
Global area planted 990,000 acres or more 81% in Europe and in particular 53% of them in Italy,
France 13%, Spain 12.5%, Greece 2%, Cyprus 0.5%.
120,000 acres or 10% grow in North Africa: Algeria 5%, 3% Morocco, Tunisia 1%.
90,000 acres or 7% grow in America (USA 3%, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay, and Venezuela 4%). 20,000 acres or 2% cultivated in Asia: Lebanon 0.5%, Israel 0.5%, other 1%.
These data indicate that the cultivation of artichoke remains in countries of the Mediterranean basin
Where is the 93% of world’s production? In Italy it grows 43% of global land artichoke, which is one of the main cultivated vegetables.
In Greece, the artichoke is grown from several hundred years, but initially was not in its present improved form. The largest areas with artichokes are in the Peloponnese and Crete. The artichokes are shown in the Greek market since November-December to April-May. Their prices and sales are at the highest level at the beginning of the fall and over the course of the season.
Multiannual the artichoke is herbaceous plant. During the summer the whole part of the Overland is
plantation dries up the throat and rebursts after the first autumn rains again from buds located in the basement of the neck of the plant and give the sets which are organs of plant propagation.
The root is fleshy, and passalodis developed deep sometimes exceeding 120 m.
The volume ,however and the root system is in the 60-80 cm deep in the growth of the root system is it resilience to drought ..
The stalk is fleshy and hollow inside, can be eaten when tender, either fresh or cooked. The stems and leaves as already mentioned in particular are fed for animals in dairy production.
The flowers are hermaphrodite, in the same blossom female and the male part of  each dill head blooms open first in the center. The male part of the flower matures and catapult the pollen from five to seven days before the female part is ready to conceive. The pollen is kept alive only 4-5 days. This is the obstacle to the self, mainly because it can be fertilized on the same plant. So take the work of pollination by bees carrying pollen from one flower to another.
The edible part consists of anthokefalis by eighty-four percent water, twelve percent of carbohydrate, 3% protein, 0, 5% fat. It is rich in vitamins A, B1, B2 and C.
The artichoke thrives in areas with moderate climate, cool , not too hot and mild winter. Clearly, such a region and the Kombi meadow. It can be grown in areas where the temperature reaches a few degrees below zero.
When the winter is mild, such as Crete, the Peloponnese coastal regions, islands, etc. begin production by late autumn and continues until the end of the spring-early summer. The colder the climate, the more delayed production and the more slowly continuing to fruition this summer.
The artichoke plant is enough to withstand strong winds. This is due to the strength and shape of the foliage.
Certainly in our area we have frequent and strong winds, the wind protection with reed beds is necessary. REQUIREMENTS IN SOIL
The artichoke is α more demanding plant in soil than other vegetables. It develops and produces a wide variety of soils, even in calcareous and slightly alkaline soils. However, better when grown in deep fertile, well drained, easily cultivated, such as sand clayed or clayed territories. High soil organic matter significantly helps to ensure high yields.
The multiplication which sets is now more widespread in practice and based on the ability to have the plant to re-bloom by having the eyes of the neck below the surface after the first autumn rains or after watering. Each year the Overall parts of the plant, leaves and floral stalk dried after harvest in the late spring, early summer. The underground part  remains alive and the buds to lethargy and wake up after rain or watering.
In July or August, watering is to wakes up the plantation, to start the new vegetation. Which watering eyes have it located in the basement section of the stem to stop their summer lethargy and germinate. In this way we have a  half - grown production in vegetation. Early awakening, in conjuction which an early variety has resulted in warmer regions of Greece the production of artichokes too early (Crete, Peloponnese). In other countries the Overland part of the artichoke plant after harvesting, and used in other ways. It is collecting, cutting and construction of silos for animal feed or molding between the lines of plants to add organic matter to soil (green mature). In our country after the harvest abandoned plantation after drying the plants followed by cutting and burning. The most widely used Greek artichoke varieties today are :

The green of Argos or Argitakos which is the most common variety not only in the low parts but in other parts of the Peloponnese, Crete and other areas. It is an early variety which produces anthokefalis by November or December. The variety is the most remarkable, mainly because it is early

The violet of Attica:
The variety is less development, more productive in a number of green anthokefalis of Argos but is late in the season of production. The leaves are smaller and used in the Attika region for feeding cows. As the name testifies to the variety of color bracts leaf anthokefalis is not purple and bearing thorns.
Less varieties of economic importance are political or Constantinople and egg-shaped or oval, tender, closed, firm (solid). This is achieved when the anthokefalis is cut at the appropriate stage. If there is an extended stay in the plant, will be tough and the bracts will open as a result of development of flowers in anthokefalis.
When the harvest of the anthokefalis is accompanied with a portion of the stem, it can vary from 5 cm to 40 cm according to commercial usage in the region and the season of the year. If you need better cooling storage a point with 90-95% relative humidity is suggested.
Apart from fresh artichokes, they can also be consumed in the form of canned or frozen, and also preserved in oil or vinegar.
Every artichoke plant can produce 5 to 10 or more anthokefalis depending on the variety, age of plant, soil fertility, weather and crop threats that they receive. Every plant and attaches  4-5 sheets kg feed.
From information on the refund of VAT on artichoke sold by Tinos mainly in vegetable Athens have produced 325,000 pairs in 2001, worth 126,000 euros, or an average of 0,39 euro per pair 270,000 pairs in 2002, worth 92,000 euros, or an average of 0,34 euro per pair
176,000 pairs in 2003, worth 91,000 euros, or an average of 0,52 euro per pair and
258,000 pairs in 2004, worth 166,000 euros, or an average of 0,64 euro per pair for 2005 have not yet complited the data.
If you consider that in our assessment and a 15% of available market of Tinos in own home and in manufacturing as a preserved product, then the average annual production of the four years 2001-2004 reaches 295,000 pairs. Obviously , the reduced production in 2003 due to bad weather. We had the disaster of February then.
Thus the annual production reaches an average of 295,000 pairs and the total annual gross income of farmers of the 150,000 euro.
These figures show that the price per pair for four years has evolved upwards from 0,39 euro in 2001 came to 0,64 an increase of 62%.
In closing ,I want to thank you for your patience in listening, to thank and commend the organizers of today's celebration, both the club and the municipality, to urge all of you with plenty to eat artichokes of Tinos make sure that they are only good for our health and to wish you a good appetite and good fun … for tonight !!!!!


Rooms and accomodation in Tinos island, Cyclades, Greece